विकिपीडिया:IPA for Hindi and Urdu

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hindi and Urdu pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Hindi-Urdu phonology for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Hindustani.

IPA Hindi Urdu English equivalent
b ب abash
bʱ بھ abhor
[१] د ado
ʱ [१] دھ adhere
ɖ [१] ڈ guard
ɖʱ [१] ڈھ guardhouse
ج hedge
ʱ جھ hedgehog
f फ़ ف food
ɡ گ agate
ɡʱ گھ pigheaded
h ح، ه head
ɦ ahead
j ی yak
k ک scan
kʰ کھ can
l ل leaf
m م much
n ن not
ɳ ن٘ڑ burner
ŋ ن٘گ bank
p پ span
pʰ پھ pan
(often pronounced [f] in Hindi)
q क़ ق a k in the throat
(Urdu; often [k] in Hindi)
r ر trilled r
ɽ ड़ ڑ US: larder
ɽʱ ढ़ ڑھ as [ɽ] plus h
s ث، س، ص sue
ʂ س worship
ʃ ش shoe
[१] ت، ط stable
ʰ [१] تھ table
ʈ [१] ٹ art
ʈʰ [१] ٹھ art-historian
چ catch
ʰ چھ choose
ʋ[२] و varies between w and v
x ख़ خ Bach
(Urdu; often [kʰ] in Hindi)
ɣ ग़ غ similar to a French r
(Urdu; often [ɡ] in Hindi). Close to uvular flap.
z ज़ ذ، ز، ض، ظ zen
ʒ झ़ ژ pleasure
IPA Hindi Urdu English equivalent
आ, पा آ, بَا la
ए, पे اے، بے between yell and Yale
ɛː ऐ, पै اَے، بَے yell
ə [३] अ, प اَ، بَ about
[४] ई, पी اِی، بِی feet
ɪ [४] इ, पि اِ، بِ dill
ओ, पो او، بو old
ɔː औ, पौ اَو، بَو law
[४] ऊ, पू اُو، بُو loot
ʊ [४] उ, पु اُ، بُ look
 ̃ ـں nasal vowel
([ãː], [õː], etc.)

ˈ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
ː doubled consonant
  1. १.० १.१ १.२ १.३ १.४ १.५ १.६ १.७ To an English ear, [t̪ t̪ʰ ʈ ʈʰ] all sound like /t/, and [d̪ d̪ʱ ɖ ɖʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Hindi-Urdu speaker's ear these are very different sounds. [t̪ d̪] are like Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth, and [t̪ʰ d̪] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English /θ ð/ (the th sounds). Hindi-Urdu [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth, and [ʈʰ ɖ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English t d; [ʈ] is how they hear English t after s.
  2. फलकम्:IPAblink, फलकम्:IPAblink and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Hindi-Urdu. Some words, such as vrat ('व्रत', fast), are pronounced with [v] and others, such as pakwan ('पकवान', food dish), are pronounced with [w].
  3. /ɛ/ occurs as a conditioned allophone of /ə/ in proximity of an /h/, if /h/ is surrounded on both sides by schwas. Mostly, the second schwa undergoes syncopation and the resultant is just an /ɛ/ preceeding an /h/.
  4. ४.० ४.१ ४.२ ४.३ /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralized to [i, u] at the end of a word.
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