फलकम्:IPA key फलकम्:Contains Indic text फलकम्:IPA notice The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Classical Sanskrit pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-sa}} and फलकम्:Section link.

See shiksha for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Sanskrit.

फलकम्:Horizontal TOC

Keyसम्पाद्यताम्

Consonants
IPA[१] Nagari[१] IAST[१] [२] English approximation
फलकम्:IPA link b about
फलकम्:IPA link bh abhor
फलकम्:IPA link ś sheep
फलकम्:IPA link d roughly like do
फलकम्:IPA link dh roughly like old house
फलकम्:IPA link roughly like North American board
फलकम्:IPA link ḍh roughly like North American birdhouse
फलकम्:IPA link g again
फलकम्:IPA link gh doghouse
फलकम्:IPA link [३] head
फलकम्:IPA link h ahead
फलकम्:IPA link y yak
फलकम्:IPA link j roughly like juice
फलकम्:IPA link jh roughly like hedgehog
फलकम्:IPA linkफलकम्:IPA link ज्ञ[४] roughly like argue
फलकम्:IPA link k skin
फलकम्:IPA link kh kin
फलकम्:IPA link l leaf
फलकम्:IPA link m much
फलकम्:IPA link n tenth
फलकम्:IPA link ñ canyon[५]
फलकम्:IPA link roughly like burnt[५]
फलकम्:IPA link bank[५]
फलकम्:IPA link p span
फलकम्:IPA link ph pan
फलकम्:IPA link r Indian roti
फलकम्:IPA link s soup
फलकम्:IPA link Somewhat like North American worship
फलकम्:IPA link t Somewhat like stable
फलकम्:IPA link th Somewhat like table
फलकम्:IPA link stable
फलकम्:IPA link ṭh table
फलकम्:IPA link c Somewhat like chew
फलकम्:IPA link ch chew
फलकम्:IPA link v between wine and vine
Vowels[५][६]
IPA Nagari IAST[२] English approximation
ɐ , a comma
फलकम्:IPA link , पा ā bra
फलकम्:IPA link , पि i sit
फलकम्:IPA link , पी ī feet
फलकम्:IPA link , पु u look
फलकम्:IPA link , पू ū loot
फलकम्:IPA link , पृ as rri
फलकम्:IPA link , पॄ as rrī
फलकम्:IPA link , पे e wait
ai , पै ai hi
फलकम्:IPA link , पो o old
au , पौ au h'ow
◌̃ ◌̃/m̐ nasal vowel [ɐ̃], [ãː], [õː], etc.)[५]


Suprasegmentals
IPA Nagari IAST[२] English equivalent
फलकम्:IPA link stress[७]
(placed before stressed syllable)

See alsoसम्पाद्यताम्

Notesसम्पाद्यताम्

  1. १.० १.१ १.२ Devanagari consonant letters such as have the inherent vowel a. Thus, is pronounced ka, even without any vowel sign added. But the IPA and IAST shown here have the consonant k only and do not include the vowel 'a'.
  2. २.० २.१ २.२ Comparison of IAST with ISO 15919 transliteration.
  3. visarga - a diacritic attached to vowels but realized as a consonant
  4. a compound consonant of ज and ञ
  5. ५.० ५.१ ५.२ ५.३ ५.४ Vowels may occur nasalised as an allophone of the nasal consonants in certain positions: see anusvara and chandrabindu.
  6. Sanskrit distinguishes between long and short vowels. Each monophthong has a long and short phoneme. The diphthongs, historically /əi, aːi, əu, aːu/, also have a difference in quality: [e, ei, o, ou]. Rarely, vowels may be extra-long.
  7. In Classical Sanskrit, stress was predictable by syllable weight: counting from the end of a word, the second-last was stressed if heavy (having a long vowel or a coda consonant); if it was light, the third-last was stressed if heavy; otherwise, stress fell on the fourth-last syllable. Vedic Sanskrit, in contrast, possessed an unpredictable pitch accent.

Referencesसम्पाद्यताम्

फलकम्:IPA keys

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